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RPA vs BPM: 5 Key Comparisons You Should Know!

Key takeaways

  • RPA automates simple tasks, while BPM manages end-to-end business processes.
  • RPA offers quick, tactical efficiency gains; BPM focuses on long-term process optimization.
  • Combining RPA with BPM can lead to comprehensive, transformative outcomes.

Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and Business Process Management (BPM) have emerged as powerful tools in the world of enterprise efficiency and digital transformation.

While they are sometimes mentioned in the same breath, RPA and BPM cater to different operational needs within an organization.

RPA is technology focused on automating repetitive tasks through the use of software robots, thereby freeing up human workers to focus on more complex, value-adding activities.

It’s a more task-level, tactical approach that can be implemented rapidly, often providing immediate benefits in terms of efficiency and error reduction.

In contrast, BPM takes a more holistic approach to optimize and manage an organization’s business processes. It involves analyzing, designing, implementing, monitoring, and modifying operational processes to ensure they align with the business’s strategic goals.

BPM is not just about automating tasks but also about continuous improvement and ensuring that the entirety of a process is as efficient and effective as possible.

Overview of Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

In today’s fast-paced business world, staying ahead often means embracing the power of technology. Robotic Process Automation, or RPA, is one such technology that’s transforming the way businesses operate.

Definition and purpose of RPA

Robotic Process Automation is a form of business automation technology based on metaphorical software robots (bots) or artificial intelligence (AI).

Its core purpose is to automate routine, monotonous tasks that you or your employees would otherwise do manually. RPA can interpret, trigger responses, and integrate with other systems to perform a vast array of repetitive tasks.

RPA is a form of business process automation that allows anyone to define a set of instructions for a robot or ‘bot’ to perform. RPA bots are capable of mimicking most human-computer interactions to carry out a ton of error-free tasks, at high volume and speed

Aaron Bultman, director of product at Nintex

Benefits of RPA in business operations

You can expect several tangible benefits from implementing RPA in your business. Here are some highlights:

  • Increased efficiency: RPA bots can work tirelessly 24/7, which translates into consistent output without the breaks and downtimes associated with human labor.
  • Accuracy and compliance: With RPA, your processes are less prone to errors, and digital trails make it easier for your business to comply with regulations.
  • Cost savings: By automating tasks, your business reduces the labor hours needed, saving money in the long term.
  • Scalability: RPA allows you to scale operations up or down without the typical constraints of human resources.

How Does Robotic Process Automation (Rpa) Differ From Traditional Automation Methods in Transforming Business Operations?

RPA is different from traditional automation in that it is specifically designed to mimic human interactions with software applications to carry out high-volume, repetitive tasks.

While traditional automation could require extensive programming to handle complex processes, RPA bots can ‘learn’ from user actions and handle complex tasks after initial configuration. Unlike the broader scope of BPM, RPA focuses on automating specific tasks within a process.

Examples of industries using RPA

A diverse range of industries benefit from RPA. Here are a few examples:

  • Banking and Finance: Automates tasks like account opening, data management, and compliance reporting.
  • Healthcare: Improves patient care by handling appointment scheduling and claims processing.
  • Manufacturing: Streamlines supply chain operations and inventory management.
  • Retail: Enhances customer service and manages high-volume transactions.
A man looking at a city sky thinking about RPA vs BPM and how it impacts his business

Overview of Business Process Management (BPM)

Business Process Management, or BPM, is a systematic approach to making an organization’s processes more efficient and effective. It’s a way for you to ensure that your company’s operations are aligned with your business strategy.

Definition and purpose of BPM

BPM is the discipline of overseeing and controlling the processes within your organization. Its purpose is to streamline workflows to achieve greater efficiency, adaptability, and effectiveness within your daily business operations.

With BPM, you aim to continuously improve processes to meet changing business needs and market demands.

Business process management (BPM) is a discipline that uses various methods to discover, model, analyze, measure, improve and optimize business processes. 


Benefits of BPM in business operations

Implementing BPM can provide multiple benefits to your business. For one, it enhances agility, ensuring that your company can respond quickly to internal and external changes. Additionally, BPM helps in:

  • Cost reduction: Streamlining processes to eliminate waste and redundancies can lower operating costs significantly.
  • Productivity improvement: Clearer, optimized workflows enhance employee productivity.
  • Compliance and risk management: BPM can improve governance by standardizing processes, making it easier to comply with regulations and reduce risks.

What Is the Difference Between Business Process Management and Business Process Optimization

Business Process Management (BPM) focuses on the entire business process, analyzing and optimizing it to improve efficiency.

On the other hand, Business Process Optimization is a subset of BPM that specifically targets improving existing processes for better performance without the wholesale changes usually associated with BPM.

Examples of industries using BPM

Industries across the board have adopted BPM to optimize their functions. You can find BPM utilised in:

  • Healthcare: For patient data management and improving patient care processes.
  • Banking and Finance: To streamline loan processing and handle compliance reporting.
  • Manufacturing: For inventory management and quality assurance processes.
  • Retail: To automate supply chain operations and customer service.

By integrating BPM into their structure, these industries have seen improvements in process clarity, execution speed, and overall organizational effectiveness.

A group of people engaged in a discussion about business process management and robotic process automation

What Is the Difference Between BPM and RPA?

In the landscape of business process efficiency, you’ll find that Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and Business Process Management (BPM) are two distinct solutions designed to streamline operations. Let’s delve into the specifics to understand each one’s unique advantages and functionalities.

1. Focus

The focus of RPA and BPM differs in scope and application:

  • RPA Focus: RPA is centered on automating repetitive, rule-based tasks that are typically performed by humans. Its primary goal is to save time and reduce errors by using software robots or ‘bots’ to perform these tasks quickly and consistently.
  • BPM Focus: BPM takes a broader approach, focusing on the end-to-end management of all business processes. It aims to improve overall business performance by analyzing, designing, implementing, monitoring, and optimizing various business processes through a systematic approach.

While RPA is about automating specific tasks, BPM is concerned with managing and improving complete processes.

2. Technology

The technology underlying RPA and BPM is what enables them to achieve their respective focuses:

  • RPA Technology: RPA technology consists of software bots that mimic human actions such as clicking, typing, and navigating through systems and applications. These bots can interact with multiple disparate systems to perform tasks without changing the underlying IT infrastructure.
  • BPM Technology: BPM technology is a suite of tools and platforms that provide capabilities for modeling, automating, executing, and optimizing business processes. BPM often includes features for workflow design, process modeling, analytics, and integration with other enterprise systems.

RPA leverages artificial intelligence and machine learning to improve its capabilities over time, whereas BPM uses process modeling and analytics to provide a continuous improvement framework for business processes.

3. Automation

The scope and application of automation in RPA and BPM are distinct yet complementary:

  • RPA Automation: RPA is highly focused on the automation of individual tasks that are manual, repetitive, and time-consuming. By automating these tasks, RPA aims to free up human employees for more complex and strategic work. An example of RPA in action could be data entry, where a bot transfers data between systems without human intervention.
  • BPM Automation: BPM, on the other hand, automates business processes at a broader level. It seeks to automate workflows to ensure that each step of a business process is executed according to predefined rules and paths. BPM automation might involve routing documents for approval or integrating disparate systems to streamline a process.

While RPA automates specific tasks, BPM is concerned with the automation of entire business processes.

4. Effort

The effort required to implement RPA and BPM can vary significantly based on the complexity of the processes and the specific needs of the organization:

  • RPA Effort: RPA is often seen as a less invasive and quicker to implement solution because it doesn’t require altering existing systems. Instead, RPA bots interact with the existing user interface of applications just like a human would. This can lead to faster deployment times and quicker realization of benefits.
  • BPM Effort: Implementing BPM can be more effort-intensive, as it often involves a deep analysis of existing processes, re-engineering of workflows, and integration of various systems. This effort, however, can lead to more substantial and long-term improvements in process efficiency and effectiveness.

Both RPA and BPM require ongoing effort to maintain and optimize the automated tasks and processes. RPA may need regular updates to adapt to changes in the user interface of applications, while BPM may involve continuous process analysis and refinement.

5. Business Impact

The impact of RPA and BPM on business operations and outcomes can be profound, but they each contribute in different ways:

RPA Business Impact: The implementation of RPA can lead to immediate and noticeable improvements in efficiency and accuracy. By automating routine tasks, businesses can reduce the time and cost associated with these activities.

This not only improves productivity but also allows human employees to focus on more value-adding tasks, such as customer service or strategic planning. RPA can also enhance scalability by enabling businesses to handle increased workloads without additional staffing.

BPM Business Impact: BPM’s impact is more strategic and transformational. By re-engineering processes, BPM can lead to more significant long-term benefits, such as increased agility, improved compliance, and better alignment of business processes with organizational goals.

BPM helps in creating a more streamlined operation that can adapt to changes in the market or regulatory environment more quickly.

Additionally, the holistic approach of BPM can lead to enhanced customer satisfaction by ensuring that all aspects of a business process are optimized for the end-user experience.

Two people from the business process management team standing in front of a large screen at night discussing RPA

When to Use BPM or RPA?

You’ll discover that each has its specific scenarios and benefits.

When to Use BPM?

You should turn to BPM when you’re looking to redesign or improve complex business processes that involve multiple steps, decisions, and outcomes. Use BPM when you need to:

  • Standardize processes across your organization to ensure consistency.
  • Manage and monitor workflows that require human intervention, decision-making capabilities, and cross-departmental interactions.

Consider BPM for strategic process improvement and optimization that boosts your organization’s overall efficiency. For instance, improving employee onboarding can be a BPM initiative, enhancing the experience for new hires while standardizing the steps involved.

When To Use RPA?

RPA is your go-to when the task at hand is straightforward, repetitive, and rule-based. RPA works best when you need to:

  • Automate mundane tasks like data entry, form processing, or report generation without altering the underlying systems.
  • Integrate with existing applications quickly and non-invasively to perform specific jobs without the need for complex system integration.

If your goal is to save time and reduce errors in repetitive tasks, RPA can provide quick wins by automating such tasks, as seen in forms processing.

Can RPA Replace BPM?

Although RPA can automate certain tasks within a process, it cannot replace BPM entirely. RPA and BPM serve different purposes:

  • RPA is about automating specific tasks.
  • BPM focuses on managing and improving complete business processes.

Combining RPA and BPM could lead to a more comprehensive approach to process automation and improvement, yielding better performance outcomes for your business.

For a broader understanding, recognizing that these tools are complementary will guide you to leverage each at the appropriate junctures, rather than expecting a substitution of one for the other.

Key Components of RPA and BPM

Understanding the key components of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and Business Process Management (BPM) is pivotal to leveraging their respective benefits. Both focus on streamlining your business operations but differ in their approach and tools.

Bots and Automation Tools

RPA is largely about bots—software applications that automate routine tasks.

These automation tools are designed to mimic human actions within digital systems, efficiently handling repetitive work that would otherwise be time-consuming for you.

They can range from simple scripts to advanced algorithms that interpret, respond, and integrate with complex systems.

Process Optimization and Monitoring

BPM is focused on optimizing and monitoring business processes to enhance overall performance.

It involves workflow automation and modeling, allowing you to visualize and adjust entire workflows. BPM tools provide analytics to assess process efficiency, ensuring that you’re constantly informed about where and how to improve your processes.

Integration and Workflow Management

A key element of both RPA and BPM is integration and workflow management.

RPA bots need to integrate seamlessly into existing systems to automate tasks effectively.

BPM, on the other hand, manages these integrations at a broader level, orchestrating a coherent workflow that spans across different systems and departments, ensuring that your entire operation functions as a unified whole.

Two people evaluating RPA efforts combined with BPM

RPA Vs BPM: Making the Right Choice

Understanding the nuances of each, and how they align with what you need, is crucial.

Determining Organizational Needs

First, examine your current operational landscape. RPA excels in automating discrete, repetitive tasks, often without altering the underlying systems.

Consider RPA as a tool for task-level automation, ideal when you’re looking to speed up specific activities like data entry or report generation.

A group of people using their business skills to discuss robotic process automation

BPM platforms, on the other hand, are comprehensive, allowing for end-to-end process management.

They are less about individual tasks and more about the orchestration of various processes to improve overall workflow effectiveness. If you’re aiming to overhaul your processes at a fundamental level, a BPM platform might be your best bet.

Assessing Process Requirements

Examine the complexity of the processes you want to enhance. RPA’s strength lies in rules-based scenarios; it’s like having an extra set of hands to quickly handle straightforward, high-volume jobs.

A group of people studying a business process management evaluation

However, for processes that require decision-making or are subject to frequent changes, the adaptability of BPM platforms can offer a more suitable solution, handling various contingencies and offering a bigger picture view.

Aligning with Strategic Goals

Ultimately, your choice should support your organization’s strategic goals. Looking for quick wins and immediate ROI? RPA could be your path forward.

But if your vision includes transformation and long-term value through optimized business processes and decision-making, investing in BPM might be the more strategic angle.

A group of people using their project management skills to discuss business analysis.

Evaluate how each option will help you meet not just today’s goals but also enable growth and agility for the future, potentially using both RPA and BPM in tandem.

Remember, it’s not just about solving current issues but preparing for future opportunities. The strategic use of RPA or BPM, or a combination of both, can set the stage for sustained success.

Exploring Advanced Topics

In the realm of business process orchestration, hyperautomation and the integration of machine learning and AI are not merely buzzwords but essential components that can immensely enhance both RPA and BPM.

Hyperautomation and IPA

Hyperautomation extends beyond standard automation capabilities, encompassing a range of tools like RPA, Intelligent Process Automation (IPA), and more, to automate as many business processes as possible.

When you integrate IPA into your business, you implement an advanced form of automation that not only mimics tasks but also learns and adjusts over time.

  • Examples: Think of IPA as software robots that take over data extraction or invoice processing, completing these tasks much faster and with fewer errors than humans.

Machine Learning and AI Integration

The infusion of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in process automation creates systems that not only automate tasks but also predict and adapt.

Your software robots become smarter by learning from data patterns and previous decisions.


  • Machine Learning: Enhances decision-making processes by anticipating outcomes based on historical data.
  • AI: Offers cognitive capabilities to your automation tools, allowing for complex problem-solving that goes beyond rule-based automation.

Remember, integrating AI into your RPA or BPM solutions means embracing a future where workflows are not just automated but intelligent and adaptive, streamlining your business processes to unprecedented levels.

Two business analysts sitting at a desk with monitors showing different data from RPA

Business Process Management (BPM) vs Robotic Process Automation (RPA): The Essentials

As we’ve seen, RPA is best utilized for automating specific, repetitive tasks, providing quick wins and freeing up valuable human resources for more complex tasks.

BPM, on the other hand, offers a comprehensive approach to managing and optimizing business processes for long-term strategic benefit.

While each can stand alone, combining RPA and BPM can often lead to the most robust and flexible approach to process improvement.

Key Takeaways: Differences Between BPM and RPA

  • RPA and BPM Serve Different Purposes: RPA automates individual tasks, while BPM looks at end-to-end process improvement.
  • Quick Implementation vs. Long-Term Strategy: RPA can be implemented quickly for immediate benefits, whereas BPM may require a more significant upfront effort for more profound, long-term impact.
  • Enhanced Efficiency and Productivity: Both RPA and BPM aim to make businesses more efficient, but they do so at different levels of the process hierarchy.
  • Scalability and Flexibility: RPA offers scalability in handling increased workloads, while BPM provides the flexibility to adapt to changing business environments.
  • Complementary Technologies: When used together, RPA and BPM can complement each other, leading to both immediate and sustained improvements in business performance.

Tips: If you are curios to learn more about data & analytics and related topics, then check out all of our posts related to data analytics

FAQ: RPA vs. BPM How Are They Different?

What are the key differences between RPA and BPM?

RPA focuses primarily on automating routine tasks using software robots, thereby freeing up your human resources for more complex tasks. In contrast, BPM involves analyzing, organizing, and optimizing the various processes within your organization to improve overall efficiency. For more detailed insights, you can refer to explanations on differences between RPA and BPM.

How do RPA and BPM complement each other in process automation?

While RPA handles task-based automation, BPM takes a broader approach, managing and improving entire business processes. Integrating the two can yield a comprehensive automation strategy that amplifies the strengths of both systems. Discover exactly how RPA and BPM can work together.

What are the cost implications of implementing RPA versus BPM?

Implementing RPA typically incurs lower immediate costs compared to BPM, as it targets specific tasks and does not require an overhaul of existing processes. BPM implementations, being larger in scale and scope, may involve higher up-front expenditure but can potentially offer larger returns in the long run through streamlined operations. Understand better about cost implications for RPA and BPM.

Can RPA be integrated with BPM tools, and if so, how?

Yes, RPA can be integrated into BPM tools to automate specific tasks within a process. Combining the two can enhance your process management and task automation. For a more comprehensive understanding on integration techniques, explore the strategies on integrating RPA with BPM tools.

Which is better for my business: RPA or BPM?

The choice between RPA and BPM depends on your business objectives and needs. If your aim is to automate simple, repetitive tasks, RPA might be the choice for you. If you’re looking to comprehensively restructure and improve your business workflows, then BPM could be more beneficial. Assess which is better for your business.

What are the pros and cons of using RPA in comparison with BPM?

Using RPA offers quick wins through automation with typically low costs and minimal disruption to existing systems, but it’s limited in complexity and scalability. BPM provides a holistic view, optimizing your entire workflow that could lead to significant long-term benefits; however, it may require more upfront investment and organizational change management. Here’s a nuanced look at the advantages and disadvantages of RPA and BPM.

Eric J.
Eric J.

Meet Eric, the data "guru" behind Datarundown. When he's not crunching numbers, you can find him running marathons, playing video games, and trying to win the Fantasy Premier League using his predictions model (not going so well).

Eric passionate about helping businesses make sense of their data and turning it into actionable insights. Follow along on Datarundown for all the latest insights and analysis from the data world.